Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The sea of Galilee Essay Example for Free

The sea of Galilee Essay Louis Joseph Watteau’s â€Å"The Storm† is more of a romantic painting while Eugene Delacroix’s â€Å"The sea of Galilee† is more of a neo-classical painting. Let me begin with Watteau’s â€Å"The Storm. † This painting is a romantic work of art because of the general effect that its appearance brings to its onlookers. The storm is not yet present; it is only foreboding of its eventual coming. Half of the portions of the clouds are still filled with some sunny light but the other half was already covered with some dark clouds, signifying the threat of an upcoming storm. Below the clouds, we see some people working, doing some farm work while the weather is still quite good and the storm is not yet pouring. They are maximizing the time doing what needs to be done as perhaps they cannot afford to put off the peasant’s work. Looking more closely at the painting, we will see that what unassumingly takes the center of the canvas is a tree that is slightly tilted and is seemingly bald with the verdure of luscious leaves. The fading light of the sun reflects itself on the awkwardly standing tree, emphasizing its lanky stems and its listless stature. From what we can see on the surface, this painting by Watteau typifies the characteristics of a Romantic painting and the moods of the Romantic Movement in general. The Romantic Ideal frolics and jubilates on the meadows of individualism, emotions and nature. It also promotes the subjective moods of the individuals and the eschewal of reason in favor of intuition and imagination. The Romantic Movement, whether in literature or visual arts, is said to have three primary cults: the cult of the individual, the cult of emotion and the cult of nature. It is a reaction towards the rapid rise of Science which espoused rational and utilitarian thinking. Specifically, it stemmed from the abrupt social change which was trail blazed by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. The movement called for a retreat towards nature to regain the loss substance of humanity which was caused by the arrival of machines and other technologies. The Romantic also looks into the human nature – the human tendencies and behaviors and his reactions towards his surroundings. While science tried hard to explain the origins of things and the rationale of their existence, the Romantics focused on man’s experience and his engagement with the world where he resides. The Romantic also probes the folk culture, the national and ethnic origins, the exotic, the occult and the diseased – the areas which Science and rational thinking consciously chose to avoid. In â€Å"The storm,† we can notice that the focus is not on the people but on the images of nature – the awkwardly standing tree and the clouds. There is an element of being diseased in the people, as they were toiling hard for their livelihood. However, this element was put into the background as we were more primarily led to notice the bleak image of nature. Despite the threats of an upcoming storm, as visualized in the appearance of the clouds, the people keep on working. The striving of the people only depicts the endless struggle between the intention to achieve perfection and the limitations of man. Even though the people know that a storm is forthcoming, they do not stop from working until it arrives. The cult of nature is likewise evident. In this insular setting, we can see nature stripped off extravagant portrayals. This is nature at its barest form. There were not so many colors; in fact the hues of brown and orange were the dominant hues in this picture. The painting limns nature as it is, without exaggerations and attempts to be swanky. Meanwhile, â€Å"Sea of Galilee† is a Neoclassical painting as looking at it will likely bring into mind the paintings of the Classical times. It is reminiscent of the visual arts existent during the times of Ancient Greeks and Romans. What we can see in this work of Delacroix is a dark background and a seemingly fragmented landscape. The group of people riding the ship was marked by a sense of defeat as the ship was faltering against the ravaging weather. The sails are beginning to get shattered as it travels below the dark clouds and above the dark grey ocean. The people in the ship are trying their best to save themselves and the ship they are riding. Obviously, they were facing a tough situation and in order to triumph, an earnest, concerted effort must be put. The neoclassical painting goes back to the lost luminescence of the Classical paintings during the Ancient civilization. It incorporates every element that can be possibly used to recast the Classical. They reused the Classical styles, recalled the Classical themes and reinterpreted the Classical subjects. By doing that, they lead in pushing forth the resurgence of the loss tradition and rendering them in slightly new, and better forms. With the advances in techniques and artistic devices, the Neoclassical extends the Classical by attempting to render their arts and make their interpretations of their subjects in a more accurate manner. Majority of these subjects have references to history and mythology. As we can see in this dominantly dark painting, there is much emphasis on the quality of lines that the elements of color and atmosphere were quite downplayed. It also has a tendency to appear as simplistic as possible. We can see the elements of the people, the straggling ship with its breaking sails and the dark sea. With just three elements incorporated in the painting, it was able to convey a strong idea – man’s being caught in the thick of a wide adventure that is life and encountering tough challenges where a mettlesome character is needed to attain victory. References Antal, Frederick. (1966). Classicism and romanticism: with other studies in art history. London : Routledge Irwin, David G. (1966). English neoclassical art: studies in inspiration and taste. London: Faber. Sypher, Wylie, ed. (1963). Art history: an anthology of modern criticism. New York: Vintage Books.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Wars and Conflicts in American History Essay -- American History

War is defined in the Merriam-Webster online dictionary as â€Å"1.a. as a state of usually open and declared hostile conflict between states or nations; a period of such armed conflict; 2.a. a state of hostility, conflict, or antagonism; b. a struggle or competition between opposing forces.† War has been a part of this great nation since the beginning. The Seven Years’ War, The Revolutionary War, and The Civil War were some of the bloodiest battles ever fought over the years in the United States. Let’s take a walk through history and look at why these wars were fought, the courses they each took, and the impact they had on the United States today. The Seven Years War, or the French and Indian War to the American colonists, was considered to be the first true World War. This war was one of the major conflicts in history since the fall of Rome. The war was fought around the world; in Europe, North America as well as India, the conflict mainly due to ongoing hostilities and struggles of absolute rule between Great Britain and France. The conflict beginning in 1754 was a dispute over land in the Ohio Valley being claimed by Virginians, the French and Native Americans that were already living there. By 1755, the frontier had turned into a mobilization of British and American troops against the French. The British hoped for a quick victory, but the French were prepared to fight and became allies with many of the tribes from Canada spreading clear into the Ohio Valley. The march west was the first of many disasters for the British; with Washington, the Virginia soldiers, and General Braddock leading 2,000 troops deep in to the back country where they were ambushed by French soldiers and many indian warriors from several tribes; thousa... ...e Federal government. The wars were caused by conflicting pressures, concepts, ideas, and prejudices, fueled by our differences and pride, and were set into motion by an unlikely set of political events, and all the wars had a part in transforming the country; economically, politically, and socially leading to the reconstruction of this great nation. The war caused an increase of prosperity of the north and the collapse of the south’s entire society.As we have looked back at why these wars were fought, the courses they each took, and the impact they had on the United States today, we have discovered that even through all the wars there has been one quality that has surpassed the hands of time, and have seen repeated throughout American history; it’s the American peoples’ willingness to fight for our freedom. Works Cited http://www.merriam-webster.com/

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Globalization/Consumption of Digital Media

University of Maryland University College-Adelphi University of Maryland University College-Adelphi By: Joshua A. Hood Instructor: Professor Robert T. Zornes Course: CMST 301 Paper Title: Globalization of Digital Media By: Joshua A. Hood Instructor: Professor Robert T. Zornes Course: CMST 301 Paper Title: Globalization of Digital Media Research ProjectProject 3 Research ProjectProject 3 Globalization of Digital Media Outline: 1. Introduction. 2. Think globally. 3. Rapid sharing. 4. Interactivity (changing the game) a. Web 1. 0 (convenience) b. Digital media defined c. Evolution of the Internet . Graph 5. Mobile digital media. e. Graph f. Iphone and Steve Jobs 6. Metaphorical summary relating to the inevitability of the evolution of digital media (and education) g. Recognizing power. 7. Education with digital media h. Comparison of differing educations 8. Globalization i. Globalization does not only include digital media 9. Globalization of digital media = powerhouse 10. Downloading. j. Consumption of digital media k. P2P (Peer to Peer) l. Digital media ethics? 11. Music industry/cinema m. Digital media creates musicians, literally. n. Myspace o. Adam Young (Owl City) i.Singer/songwriter thanks to digital media. 12. Refresh: What exactly has digital media done for us? p. Information availability q. Creates contributing members of society r. Creates scholars s. Creates new disciplines, academics. t. Information on burst! 13. Webisodes u. A young tool in the digital media world. v. Proposed outlet for successful cinema. 14. Social networking=shortened gap between nations. w. Purpose of Facebook/Twitter x. Business/networking y. Mark Schaefer; author of Tao of Twitter ii. Tweeting/retweeting iii. Twitter is unique. Why? z. Dell; the pioneer of social networking v. Cory Edwards v. â€Å"Dell Outlet Feed† via Twitter vi. Advantages/disadvantages through customer reviews {. Colorado shootings via Twitter. ————-Body——â⠂¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œGlobalization of Digital Media——————– I would like to base my final project on a very simple article that –if read in depth and understood correctly, –publically announces the influence that digital media has on our modern world. My topic on the other hand –not the article, more like the idea behind the article –focuses on global digital media. It focuses on humanity’s horizons, expanding through digital media.Subtopics discussed include: education, brick and mortar commerce, E-commerce, music, cinema, shared â€Å"common† culture from every corner of the globe (shared in a matter of seconds), education and the effects of the availability of education (in a global aspect) to the common man and the not-so-common man and lastly, social networking with its massive influence on digital media consumption. All of these topics relate to one another. They all contribute to the globalizati on of digital media. A main article I am basing my personal opinion off of can be found here: http://media. ezinemark. om/evolution-of-digital-media-an-incredible-advancement-511ee16da73. html Think globally. Even though Digital media began locally. From the television (and its mass development immediately after its invention) to the common simple radio, communication has only been moving up in the technological world. Here is an interesting fact. â€Å"The television took 13 years to reach 50 million viewers, Facebook added 100 million viewers in 9 months. † (Hopkinson, 2009) Is this a miracle? Or just excellent progress? So, along with the development of the television, also came the development of the ever growing rapid sharing of information.As you can see, Facebook’s growth rate is on a completely different level of expansion compared to the old days, when the Television was the â€Å"next big thing†. What changed the game for digital media? I would have to notice the advantages sprouting from an interactive interface system. Designed to be controlled by the user and their own interest, in the â€Å"Web. 1† days, interactivity was a game changer. It still is today. Back in the early 90’s, choosing what interested you online was a big deal. Users could view what they wanted, and when they wanted. Interactivity created a very personal experience.Today, I see interactivity focusing on convenience. Convenience seems to be the key with todays big sellers like Apple, Microsoft, Sony and more. Applications or â€Å"Apps† are always selling like wildfire. This is just me, but I made a keen observation on price free apps being in more abundance than apps that must be purchased. I wonder why that is? Where did it all start? Well, to answer this question we must ask ourselves another question. What is the purest definition of digital media? There is some debate to its actual meaning. I pulled the exact definition from the on line portal for my CMST 301 class.In the week 1, terms and concepts section, it is stated that: â€Å"The term â€Å"digital media† is often used unilaterally to describe any â€Å"online† content but ultimately includes digital transmittable text, graphics, audio, or video content. † –UMUC Webtycho portal I will provide a similar definition, so that readers without access to UMUC’s Webtycho portal may have a quick reference to the definition. According to Microsoft. com (who hasn’t heard of Microsoft? ), this is the definition of Digital Media: â€Å"Digital media refers to audio, video, and photo content that has been encoded (digitally compressed). †So now that we understand just what exactly digital media is. Lets dig deeper to get a better sense of understanding, regarding the evolution of the Internet (digital media), its global influence and how a globalization of digital media will ultimately enhance an already interconnected world. The Internet was not meant to stay the same. It was meant to grow and evolve. I believe what started the dramatic change in Internet experience from the early days, was the interactivity. Like stated before, interactivity was the game changer. Take this image for example. I included this image just to remind you of where digital media came from. In times of change learners inherit the earth; while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. † – Eric Hoffer â€Å"In times of change learners inherit the earth; while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. † – Eric Hoffer Digital media is always changing. I see it as a way of life. If you read the quotation above, you will see what I mean. If you do not adapt to new ways of this innovative and technologically advanced world, then you will be dealing with a world that doesn’t exist.However, of co urse it may exist in your own mind, making you what the young kids these days call â€Å"old school†. And there is nothing wrong with being â€Å"old school†; my parents are a bit old school themselves! And I still love them both regardless of their unwillingness to purchase an I-pad instead of a palm pilot. Yes, palm pilots are still made. Humorous. Get an Ipad, Dad. To clarify how important interactivity is to the digital media world, take a look at the graph below. I pulled this from http://www. threeminds. organic. com.It gives us a visual of just how committed companies have become to the concept of customer interactivity. If you check out the percentages on the right side of the table graphic, you will see CAGR. CAGR is an acronym for Compound Annual Growth Rate. This is the most important aspect of this table. It sums up specifically the amount of increases in financial spending, for different branches of the Internet. Not surprisingly, Social media had the high est percentage increase of 34%. Which is why I chose to near my conclusion with social networking. Source: Forrester’s Interactive Advertising Models, 4/09 and 10/08 (US only)With mobile marketing following behind just 7%, social media continued to have the highest increase in spending from 2009 to present, and predicted to hold the same pattern in the future (2014). However, another graph I pulled from the same website shows the growth of mobile media and browsing audiences. News, information and entertainment are also included when discussing â€Å"Mobile Phone Owners†. â€Å"Clearly, the days when parents admonished their kids to use cell phones only for emergencies are over. † * Ben Rogers Cell phones are a huge part of the globalization of digital media. Really I see Apple as a pioneer for the cell phone.Steve Jobs summed it up when he said â€Å"An iPod, a phone, an Internet mobile communicator†¦ these are NOT three separate devices! And we are calli ng it iPhone! Today Apple is going to reinvent the phone. And here it is. † Whatever kind of phone you may have, know that these devices are stealthily taking over our lives. Cellphones, smartphones, mobile phones, and my dad still calls his smart phone a â€Å"Telephone†. For some reason this word â€Å"telephone† is beginning to sound foreign, maybe it’s just me. I only hear that word when talking to older generations. Many households these days don’t even have land line phones.What do you think they use? You guessed it. Smart phones, pre paid cellphones and etc. It’s not even the actual phone calling from phone to phone; it’s the usage of mobile data, applications, email, music and shopping applications that cause smart phones to be more and more popular. We cannot stop the inevitable. We cannot stop the globalization of digital media, no matter what form it may be. We cannot stop the tide. Its basic knowledge to know that any form of progression towards convenience will lead to the popularity of that specific convenience, being smartphones, or whatever form of digital media you happen to be utilizing.There is a story popular in Australia. I believe it directly relates to the subject of fighting what is inevitable. The story goes like this. A King by the name of Canut, attempted to stop an incoming ocean tide. The more educated members of his audience knew that Canute was demonstrating to his followers that neither his royal authority nor his ferocious fighting skills would ever control the power and laws of the great Mother Nature. He demonstrated that you couldn’t stop what is inevitable, what is meant to happen.We cannot fight its growth, its much better to work with it and use it to our advantage, rather than try to remain in a â€Å"traditional† stance and continue to argue over the true meaning of education. So in all the confusion between different types of education, modern, traditional, ivy league, public, military, cultural, life lessons and etc. We must ask ourselves. What is the solid, finite definition of education? Is there one such meaning? I say no. I say this because; education is such a broad term.To help us understand what education is, check out the definition from http://businessdictionary. com: â€Å"The wealth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something. Education requires instruction of some sort from an individual or composed literature. The most common forms of education result from years of schooling that incorporates studies of a variety of subjects. † –www. businessdictionary. com Now, I recall viewing a national geographic documentary a few years back.It discussed the different types of people with different types of intelligence. The national geographic researchers really focused on the comparison between a NASA rocket sci entist and a Sherpa. You can imagine the amount of graduate/masters programs a NASA rocket scientist would have to achieve, before being employed as a rocket scientist. Could you imagine the amount of experience needed to be a certified Sherpa? A Sherpa is a member of a Himalayan people living on the borders of Nepal and Tibet. They are known worldwide for their skills in mountaineering.Both the individuals were very educated in their respective environments, however if they were to switch places, they would be fall into the category of confused and lost. The ties between education and digital media are intertwined within the threads. Don’t forget that the globalization of digital media does not only include education. I am fascinated by education; this may make me lean towards research regarding education intertwined with digital media, rather than the other numerous aspects of digital media. The Internet really is as diverse as the world itself.With that in mind, let me ask this question. Is it not understood that globally, digital media is the #1 powerhouse. Take entertainment for example. The music and movie industry both benefit (and not so much) from digital media. Of course and up to date person knows that music and movies are easily downloadable through peer to peer (P2P) programs online, such as UTorrent or Bearshare. com. There are so many examples out illegally downloading content out there, this gets more into the ethics of digital media, so lets not get to in depth with this.That is a totally different subject in and of itself. The music industry/cinema industries have gained an innumerable amount of advertising space through digital media. Skilled programmers have created interactive tools online and offline. These programmers have actually given birth to an entirely new genre of music called â€Å"dub step† or modern â€Å"Techno† music. This is just a theory of mine, so please don’t go out of your way to prove me wro ng, unless of course you feel inclined to do so. Constructive criticism is always helpful if taken the right way.Musicians such as Adam Young, more commonly known to the electronica listeners as â€Å"Owl City†. He is a singer and songwriter. In the beginning he did not play the guitar, he was just getting into the keyboard. His instrument of choice during the early stages of his career was his computer and its digital media capabilities. He used programs such as â€Å"Garage Band† on his MacBook, which was incorporated into Apples computer devices in 2006. He used programs online, which were created for interactivity with beats and the incorporation of pieces of musical work from numerous guitarists, pianists and percussionists.His music mainly become known at first through the social networking website known as Myspace. com. Many musicians who become well known in 2007 and after became known through social networking sites. This is just a sample from a musician which most of you probably have not heard of (if you have, I apologize for judging my audience! ) Not only did it influence the creation of an entirely new musical genre, it created a new type of television dubbed â€Å"Webisodes†. This gets more into the cinematic part of digital media, rather than music and education.I remember seeing my first webisode. They were mini episodes composed of small time actors from the show we all know as â€Å"Scrubs†. I believed it originally aired on HBO in 2007. The webisodes were the first of many. Today the more popular show â€Å"The Walking Dead† has its own webisodes. I don’t watch them; research simply showed me they exist. Another discovery here, digital media has created its own vocabulary. I just stumbled upon one right now. The term â€Å"webisode† is not recognized on Microsoft word. It tries to correct the term to â€Å"episode†.Here is an actual definition of the term. â€Å"A Webisode is a single push technology episode. A Webisode can be a preview or promotion of a particular TV show, music video, or other show presented from a Web site using streaming video or other techniques. Some sites are dedicated to presenting Webisodes. † (Rouse, 2005). This is just another minute example of digital media is changing things everywhere. Throughout this class, I have really focused on the social networking aspect of digital media. I did this because I use social networking everyday. I use digital media everyday.With that, I would like to end this research paper with a short focus on social networking, including examples of how social networking has changed the world already, and how it triumphs the consumption of digital media, ultimately resulting in the globalization of digital media. Today, almost everyone, young or old, has some type of social network account. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, serve other purposes than that of keeping in touch with loved ones. I n terms of business and networking, they are being used by countless businesses, ranging from a small business to large companies such as Dell.There has been much praise and of course, criticism for using social media. When starting a small business, Mark Schaefer, author of Tao of Twitter, suggests using Twitter to help jumpstart one’s business if they, themselves think personal networking would be beneficial for it. In his book, he dedicates an entire chapter on searching for people who are pertinent in helping one build a business. He mentioned that one could use features on Twitter, like the â€Å"Retweet† option, to assist in getting some recognition. To â€Å"retweet† something on Twitter means to merely re-share or spread something that someone else posted. Retweeting† someone else’s tweet is somewhat a compliment for them. It’s as if you are telling them that are in agreement with what they say or you’re simply telling them â⠂¬Å"Good job†. Personal note, I see this as an attempt by twitter to distinguish itself as different from Facebook, making it more unique. What Schaefer also mentioned was that one can also manage the people who follow him and what they say by arranging them in lists on Twitter. This is to organize and efficiently manage the groups that are associated with his business.Organizing business-related groups in this fashion makes it much easier to interact with those people and network. Large companies can and have benefited from using Twitter and the like. Dell was actually among the first to use social media. Dell’s social director, Cory Edwards, stated that the key to being successful in using these networks is to be attentive towards what the customers are saying and prove to them that you are listening to their feedback. Dell uses social media to obtain feedback from their customers on the quality of their products and to get any suggestions on how to improve them.They have been so successful in doing so that sales have increased significantly via their DellOutlet feed on Twitter. And mentioned earlier, some criticism comes along with the praises. Dell actually utilizes the criticism and uses it to their advantage. For the past few years, they have invited ten critics and ten enthusiasts to talk about the products and what they disliked and liked, respectively. Finally, after that event, Dell would do a follow-up and would inform those 20 people on how their opinions changed them. In addition to using social networks for business, it has also displayed some otential promise spreading the news in the most immediate manner. Because we live in a world where almost all of us are â€Å"glued† to our smart phones/ Iphones, it is convenient to use these devices when informing the public when tragedy strikes. For example, when the Colorado shootings occurred last summer, a 31-year-old woman logged on her Facebook to check her brother’s page. He was supposed to attend the Batman showing. She saw his status, which stated that he didn’t attend the Batman showing, giving her some relief. Many other stories, similar to this, were posted on Facebook and Twitter, but in somewhat different ways.With Facebook, it’s mainly family and friends who view your profile (unless your profile is public or you accept anyone who sends you a friend request). With Twitter, you obtain news from loved ones and from everywhere else in the world because of â€Å"trending topics† that are displayed. In regards to the Colorado shooting, the American Red Cross also tweeted on Twitter advising people in the theater to let their loved ones know that they are safe. Social media networks are, without a doubt, the fastest and most convenient way to update family and friends in times of tragedy.Digital media has touched so many different aspects of our lives. It shares information. It creates musicians. It creates scholars. It shares information from one side of the globe to the other. It communicates like a machine gun on burst. Much like King Canute, I recognize power when I see it. Digital media is one powerful beast. Embrace it, so we may reach our full potential, and thrive in this world of inevitable evolution thanks to digital media. Sources Cited Mathers, L. (2010, 07). Evolution of digital media- an incredible advancement. Free content article directory.Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://media. ezinemark. com/evolution-of-digital-media-an-incredible-advancement-511ee16da73. html Hopkinson, R. (2009, 10). A brief history of digital media. Three minds. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://threeminds. organic. com/2009/10/a_brief_history_of_digital. html Alexander, A. (2012, 02). Top 15 cell phone and smartphone quotes of all time. Technology, tutorials, social media and infographics. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://ansonalex. com/technology/top-15-cellphone-smartphone-and-mobile-quotes-of-all-time/ Ryan, Y. 1998 ). Time and tide: teaching and learning online. Australian universities review, 1(41), n/a, 14-15. Rouse, M. (2005, 04). Time and tide: teaching and learning online. Search soa tech target.. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://searchsoa. techtarget. com/definition/Webisode Mullaney, T. (2012, 05). Social media is reinventing how business is done. USA TODAY. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://usatoday30. usatoday. com/money/economy/story/2012-05-14/social-media-economy-companies/55029088/1 Mitchell, A. (2011, 05). What facebook and twitter mean for news.The pew research centers project for excellence in journalism the state of the news media 2012 an annual report on american journalism. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://stateofthemedia. org/2012/mobile-devices-and-news-consumption-some-good-signs-for-journalism/what-facebook-and-twitter-mean-for-news/ Emerson, M. (2013, 02). Learning social media tricks from the big boys. Business day small business. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://boss. blog s. nytimes. com/2013/02/22/learning-social-media-tricks-from-the-big-boys/ Alcindor, Y. (2012, 07). Social media play growing role on spreading word of tragedy. NEWS. Retrieved 03, 2013, from

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Abraham Maslow s Theory Of Human Motivation - 1670 Words

Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was always visually examining the greater scope of human nature. Whereas most of his counterparts of his day seemed to be more concerned with a narrower scope, Maslow s own vision was far-reaching. His lifetime of revelations in motivation and personality transcended academic psychology, and extended into the major business fields of management and marketing. Maslow additionally explored how and individual perceives their existence and beginning to display signs of future potential. Abraham Maslow is noted as the originator of such important ideas as the hierarchy of human needs, self-actualization, higher motivation, team decision-making, and business synergy. In 1943, the Abraham Maslow published a paper called A Theory of Human Motivation, in which he said that people had five sets of needs, which come in a particular order. While there were no pyramids or triangles in the original paper, Maslow s hierarchy of needs is now usually illustrated with the symbol (Figure 1). As each level of needs is satisfied, the desire to fulfill the next set kicks in. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory remains an important and simple motivation tool for managers to understand and apply. The physiological needs the very basic foundation of a person’s motivational drive. They are usually taken as the starting points for motivation theory are the so called physiological drives. These needs include the necessary elements of survival and maintain homeostasisShow MoreRelatedAbraham Maslow Life Span Development and Personality1082 Words   |  5 PagesAbraham Maslow Life Span Development and Personality Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. Abraham Maslow grew up in Brooklyn, New York, the first of seven children born to his Jewish parents who emigrated from Russia. His parents were uneducated, but they insisted that he study law. Maslow later described his early childhood as unhappy and lonely, and he spent much of his time in the library immersed in books. At first, Abraham acceded to their wishes and enrolled in theRead MoreMaslow s Motivation And Personality1604 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to Robert Frager, editor of the third edition of Maslow’s Motivation and Personality, the theorist Abraham Maslow was born in 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven children born to Russian - Jewish immigrants. While Maslow’s father was uneducated, he pushed his son academically and encouraged him to become a lawyer. Maslow began his extensive education at City College of New York but later told his father that he did not want to study law. In 1928, after marrying hisRead MoreCompare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy1696 Words   |  7 PagesNeeds Theories Overview Needs-based motivation theories are based on the understanding that motivation stems from an individuals desire to fulfill or achieve a need. Human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsRead MoreMaslows Essay1160 Words   |  5 PagesAbraham H Maslow was a psychologist who developed a theory that sought to explain human behaviour in terms of basic needs for survival and growth. (www.enotes.com. 2002). This paper will define Maslow’s theory (a ‘hierarchy of needs’) and explain how differences in priorities influence and inform upon consumer behaviour. Maslow developed his ‘hierarchy of needs’ in an attempt to describe patterns of human behaviour, and to try to understand the processes behind the actions of consumers. In essenceRead MoreCompare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfers Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslows Needs Hierarchy1708 Words   |  7 PagesNeeds Theories Overview Needs-based motivation theories are based on the understanding that motivation stems from an individuals desire to fulfill or achieve a need. Human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsRead MoreMaslow s Theory Of Self Actualization772 Words   |  4 PagesThe theory of self-actualization was introduced by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow s famous work â€Å"Hierarchy of Needs† has drawn admiration and criticisms from supporters and opponents alike. For Maslow, man quest for self-actualization falls within five hierarchical orders set up in a pyramid style. To become everything that one is capable of becoming, Maslow, noted that the order in which these needs are fulfilled does not al ways follow the standard progression. Further, humans are motivatedRead MoreNeed Theories: Comparing Maslow, Alderfer, and Mcclelland1194 Words   |  5 Pages19 July 2014 Need Theories: Comparing Maslow, Alderfer, and McClelland Most theories of motivation revolve around the idea an employee’s needs influence their motivation.  Needs  are physiological or psychological scarcities that stimulate behavior therefore are necessary to live a healthy, productive lives both in personal and work lives. â€Å"If work is meaningless, then life comes close to being meaningless†(Maslow, Stephens Heil 39). These needs, whether weak or strong and are greatly influencedRead MoreHumanistic Theories Debate On Abraham Maslow And Carl Rogers1617 Words   |  7 PagesHumanistic Theories Debate Team B – Anthony Garcia, Becky Billison, Cher Keen, Britanie McKernan, Megan Groulx PSY/310 September 7, 2015 Dr. Sadie Fine â€Æ' Humanistic Theories Debate In the debate between Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, both whom are humanistic theorists that share a mutual interest in the teachings of self-actualization, will discuss the specifics of their individual theories regarding the main points, their contributions, and the criticism they have received about their theories. We willRead MoreMaslow‚Äà ´s Hierarchy of needs1220 Words   |  5 Pagesneeds Abraham Maslow foster the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow s ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs toward the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and ability of employees to carry out their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more related than ever. Abraham Maslow s bookRead MoreAbraham Maslow s Theory On Motivation1390 Words   |  6 PagesAbraham Maslow Many psychologists have been influential in the field of psychology but one of those that has achieved this more than most was Abraham Maslow. Abraham Maslow (April 1, 1908- June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who is best known for his theories on motivation, his hierarchy of needs and as being one of the founding fathers of humanistic psychology (Popova, date unknown). As he is largely associated with such themes such as motivation, needs and humanistic psychology the assignment

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Gene Testing Genes Affect A Single Gene Essay - 1398 Words

Gene Testing Have you ever been told you have your dad’s eyes, or your mum’s nose? Well this is because of genes. Your genes are part of what makes you the person you are. You are different from everyone alive now and everyone who has ever lived. â€Å"A gene is a hereditary unit consisting of DNA that occupies a spot on a chromosome and determines a characteristic in an organism. (Introduction to Genetics, 2016). Genes are passed on from parent to child, which then play an important role in deciphering your child’s looks and behaviour. Unfortunately, some of the genes shared between parents in an offspring are altered in such a way that they create what is called a gene mutation. â€Å"Gene mutations affect a single gene by changing its base sequence, resulting in an incorrect, or nonfunctional, protein being made.† (reference textbook). Gene mutations are often so subtle that they go by unnoticed as they have no physical distinction, but there are some gene mutation s that have terminal effects. Everyone has a choice whether or not they’d like themselves or their children to be tested for gene mutations such as these. The conduction of these tests is known as gene testing. â€Å"Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.† (Reference, G, 2016). There are a wideShow MoreRelatedHow Cancer Affects The Body, And Their Offspring1218 Words   |  5 PagesRebekah Addison Mrs. Roberts English - 1 9 May 2014 How Cancer Affects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring Have you ever wondered how cancer forms? Well, cancer starts when a cell s DNA becomes altered. When the DNA is altered, the cells reproduce without restriction and do not die like a normal cell. These extra cells form a mass of tissue that is a tumor. Cancer forms in the genes of our cells, and is able to be carried in the offspring of the person with cancer. The cells are theRead MoreThe Molecular Nature And The Inheritance Pattern Of The Disease / Disorder1210 Words   |  5 Pagesinherited genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems. CF is cause by the mutation on chromosome 7 called CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). This gene will produce a gene that helps in the movement of sodium chloride in and out of cells. When this protein work incorrectly, it will block this movement thus lead to the production of thick sticky mucus outside the cell. CF is an autosomal recessive gene. This means that the affectedRead MoreTRMPL1 : The Role Of TRPML11291 Words   |  6 Pages Role of TRPML1 As mentioned before, TRPML1 is the transient receptor protein affected by the mutation that causes MLIV. The TRP gene family are not yet well characterized, but are known to localize in late endosomes and have associations with lysosomes. It is required for proper and efficient fusion of late endosomes and autophagosomes with lysosomes (6). There were debates regarding what sort of channel TRMPL1 was, with some stating that it was a proton channel rather than an ion channel (2)Read MoreGenetic testing is a class of medical testing that recognize changes in chromosomes, gene or1300 Words   |  6 PagesGenetic testing is a class of medical testing that recognize changes in chromosomes, gene or proteins. This type of test look for abnormalities in DNA or RNA that is collected from a person’s blood, body fluids or tissues. Genetic testing scans the genes looking for large or small change that occur to gene. These changes to the genes could have missing or addition parts that co uld change the chemical base within the DNA strand. Abnormal genes could be the result of other mistakes like the genes areRead MoreA Research Study On Genetic Testing Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesThe use of genetic information has drawn repeated attention from insurance companies in recent years. Especially the introduce of genetic testing in the industry, which can help set the level of cost of premiums for different groups of the population as well as assess the risk. Many parties have been involved in the debate on whether genetic information can be allowed to use by insurers when assessing those applications, such as government, insurance companies, health service providers. In the UKRead MoreThe Significance Of Breast Cancer1022 Words   |  5 Pagesreceived with much controversy and mixed opinions. In this following paper, the genes that contribute to breast cancer, genetic testing, breast cancer being passed down, and Angelina Jolie will be discussed. BRAC1 and BRCA2 are the genes that are contributors to breast cancer. Although rare, they are deadly if mutated. They can be passed down genetically from either the mother or father. But if someone is a carrier of those genes being irregular, that does not mean cancer is guaranteed. BRCA2 has a lesserRead MoreGenetic Disorders1363 Words   |  6 PagesThe mutant gene is transmitted through birth. These genetic mutations can create serious complications and even death. It is important to understand how people get certain traits and genes. A person receives one set of chromosomes and genes from each person. That means each person inherits the traits. One gene may be more influential then another in developing specific traits. The more powerful gene is called the dominant gene and the less powerful is the recessive. A variation of a gene and theRead MoreBiology : A Biochemical Approach For Study How Genetics May Influence Social Outcomes Essay944 Words   |  4 Pagesexplores the following: the identification of genes that influence social behavior, the understanding of the influence of these genes on underlying neural and endocrine mechanisms, and understanding the effects of the environment, particularly the social environment, on gene action. In Psychology 241, we were introduced to the OPRM1 gene, which contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This means that this gene (OPRM1) can vary, in people, by a single nucleotide (A ↔ G). Ways et al. (2009) discoveredRead MoreThe Question Being Posed?1384 Words   |  6 Pages1% between individuals. 3 Therefore, the focus of pharmacogenetics is genetic variations of genes, devoting to the concept of â€Å"many genomes, one drug†3 indicating patient variability in order to achieve the desired product.3 This literature will mainly focus on the how innovative pharmacogenomics medical service is implemented in community pharmacy and including the benefits of pharmacogenomics testing. Section 2: Argument (1500 words) In Australia, general practitioners (GP) reportRead MoreNoonan Syndrome Is Agenetic Birth Defect That Results In1100 Words   |  5 Pages Noonan syndrome is a genetic birth defect that results in many physical deformities and possible developmental handicaps. Noonan Syndrome affects male children while Turner Syndrome affects females. This paper will focus solely on Noonan Syndrome, which affects 1 in approximately 2,000 people. Complications include but are not limited to: short stature, widely spaced eyes, some form of heart disease, and stunted puberty or infertility. Noonan syndrome is a biochemical disorder that occurs before

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Gender Stereotypes Of The Twentieth Century Entertainment...

Gender stereotypes In the last few decades the daily lives of Americans is revolving around about what the entertainment media has displayed for them. Society has been influenced by the media with movies, advertisements and news that are constantly bombarding us. Entertainment media has given Americans a taste of the films that display a traditional housewife woman and heroic male figures. However, today’s media has offered a new perspective on how a woman or man can act. These stereotypes have been making a difference for woman and men by allowing them to be able to express their individuality. In many Disney movies, gender stereotypes have been changing from the typical idea of what a woman’s image should be. The twentieth century†¦show more content†¦Astrid is one of the teenagers who was training to kill dragons, so she personalized her clothes in such a way the clothes allowed her to move as much as she needed. That is an influence for teenager style. Nowadays we don’ t observe all the girls in dresses or skirts but with jeans or shorts. This shows how many options to dress a girl has. The second aspect is related with the limit of what a woman can do compared to what a man can do when it comes to athletic and fighting skills. In the movie â€Å"The book of life† Maria studied the art of swords and got skilled in sword fighting Maria perform her skills, by stopping a fight for her between Manolo and Joaquin. Demonstrating to them that she can sword fight just as well as they can. A second example of an athletic and fighting skills is founded in the movie, â€Å"Brave†, where the main character Meridia, the princess, performed perfectly in archery. A competition for Meridias’s hand was stablish by the queen Elinor. She shooted for her own hand. Her arrows went directly to the center and in the last one it brokes the winners’s in two trasnpassing the thing. She get over her pretencers. Her performance was consider the best of everything breaking social stablished expectations. Later on, she bravely defend her mom who converted in a bear already, from her dad by fighting with a sword. Her performance again surprise him and the rest of the relatives that came to help. The final

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Employee Motivation in Profit and Charitable †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Employee Motivation in Profit and Charitable. Answer: Introduction: The discussion considers several theories such as Herzberg and Maslows theories of motivation. This report shall also help in understanding the difference in motivating employees for the profit and non-profit organizationss. The scope of the review This literature review has the scope in explaining the discussion forum, the common themes discussed are job satisfaction, organizational culture, personality, motivational theories, team role and cohesiveness and change management. Eight valid reviews on the literature review topic is selected to analyse the literature present on this topic. Certain theries and concepts regarding thee topic is gathered from the week reviews. Employee motivation can be defined as the level of commitment and creativity which acts as an internal drive influencing employees behavior. The non-profit organization human resources are the core value as such organizations have no other resources (e.g. financial resources) available to them (Miner 2015). Usually, managers spend most of their time in managing the people as they are the basic production input. Every organization intends to create a motivating atmosphere in the organization that must be satisfying intrinsically and extrinsically. This discussion is regarding the employee motivation in non-profit organization where there are limited financial resources to satisfy or motivate the employees. This discussion specifically relates to the satisfaction of employees at charitable an d profit organizations (Chow, Lai and Loi 2015). According to Feng et al. (2016) the motivation can be understood as the willingness to exert increased levels of effort in attaining organizational goals conditioned by efforts capability in order to satisfy the companys needs. Gerhards (2015) revealed the most effective ways in which the profit and charitable companies can maintain competent management and leadership. The companies can also retain its talent to attain intangible advantages such as recognition, flexible hours and respect along with offering important training and career development. Reinforcement theory is observed to be another employee motivation theory that is applicable in both the profit and charitable organizations. Hauser (2014) supported this fact through revealing that in this theory behavior is a function of its consequences. The factors that controls employee behaviors are described as reinforces that can be understood as consequences flowed by a response which increases probability of a repeating behavior. In contrast, Fang et al. (2016) explained in their research that several charitable organizations including NGOs consider implementing operating conditioning that is an employee behaviorism theory. The operant conditioning employee behavior motivation theory is implemented by most charitable companies in which this organization ensures that a type of conditioning is in which desired voluntary behavior results in reward or helps in preventing punishment. Through observing the motivational factors of employees in NGOs it has been observed that there are two types of reinforces or outcomes that includes positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is understood as an event that is employed by most charitable companies in increasing the occurrence of certain responses. On the other hand, negative reinforcement is observed to be certain event when removed enhances the response frequency. Considering the same, Hauser (2014) evidenced that in order to maintain desired behavior of the employees certain profit organizations considers elimination of a response because of reinforcement discontinuation. They also consider continuous reinforcement in which these profit organizations can praise all its employees for all the correct responses. Moreover, partial reinforcement is also maintained by the profit organizations in which they consider rewarding their employees in a variable or non-continuous manner. Mostafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomley (2015) explained in their research that equity theory is highly implemented within the charitable organizations in which the employee compares their job outcomes or inputs in comparison to relevant others and then considers correcting for any inequity. There are certain choices selected by the charitable organizations in dealing with inequity. These choices include changing inputs or shack off, change outcomes or increasing output and through changing self perceptions. Moreover, several profit organizations also consider certain choices in order to deal with inequity that includes changing the perception of others, selecting a different referent person and leaving the field or job. Considering such scenario, Mustafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomed (2015) revealed in consideration to previous literature that there are certain propositions related to inequitable pay. Over-rewarded hourly employees produce more than equitability rewarded employees and the over rewarded price work employees produces less but does a better quality piece work. It is also gathered that over-rewarded hourly employees to produce lower work quality. In addition, the under rewarded employees are deemed to produce increased quantities of inferior quality piece work in comparison to equitably rewarded employees. Previous literature on expectancy theory focused on by Hauser (2014) gathered that an individual is likely to act in a particular manner relied on the expectation that some act will be followed by a particular outcome and on the attractiveness of such outcome to the individual. Considering the same, the charitable organizations intend to maintain effort performance linkage, performance reward linkage as well as attractiveness of the work performed by employees in the company. It has been evidenced that in the profit organizations attempts to maintain effort performance relationship. There is a probability that exerting a desired amount of effort can result in improved employee performance. On the other hand, the profit organizations attempts to maintain performance reward relationship that has a belief that performing at a specific level can result in attainment of a desirable result. Certain other hygiene factors that are maintained by charitable organizations in increasing their job satisfaction includes salary, relationship with the peers, personal life, relationship with the subordinates, status along with security. Pinder (2014) elaborated in their research that there are certain motivators used by both the charitable as well as profit organization in order to increase job satisfaction for its employees. These motivators include feeling of achievement, recognition by accomplishments, and the work of employees, increased responsibility, increased growth opportunities and the efficient advancement opportunities. Hauser (2014) evidenced in their research about the effectiveness and implementation of achievement motivation theory within the profit as well as charitable organizations. Most of the profit organizations understand the need for achievement (nArch) and for this reason they consider increase employees drive to excel in their respective work. These compa nies make sure that they perform in compliance with the set of standards along with having an increased drive to succeed. The profit organizations increase the need for power (nPow) among its employees in order to make them behave in a manner that they would not have otherwise behaved. Need for affiliation (nAff) is also maintained by the several charitable organizations in which they try to motivate employees in maintaining friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Feng et al. (2016) revealed in their research that the achievers in both the charitable and profit companies prefer jobs that provide personal responsibility, feedback along with moderate risks. Lau and Roopnarain (2014) explained in their research that observational learning is also an effective type of employee motivation theory in which employees within the profit organizations can learn through simply observing the behavior of employees. At the time the task within a profit organization is simple, implementation of organizational learning process is can be immediate and complete. Considering the same, it can be said that in order to enhance the ability to generate such behavior the employees in the profit organizations must be able to perform the act. For doing the same, there must be certain motivation factor for these employees such as rewards so that they can perform their assigned work in a satisfied manner. Previous research conducted by Lau and Roopnarain (2014) on goal setting theory explained that there should be difficult and specific goals with goal feedback that can result in higher performance of employees within profit as well as the charitable organizations . Most of the profit organizations these days focus on maintaining self efficacy that considers employees belief that they are capable of carrying out some assigned tasks. Considering the same, it can be said that the profit organizations are more likely to attain a common organizational goal in order to attain high self efficacy. On the other hand, the charitable organizations attempts to increase self efficacy through task master by means of performance attainment. The profit organizations also take into consideration to maintain vicarious experience of observing others to perform in a similar manner along with the verbal persuasion in increasing self efficacy among employees. Mostafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomley (2015) explained in their research that equity theory is highly implemented within the charitable organizations in which the employee compares their job outcomes or inputs in comparison to relevant others and then considers correcting for any inequity. There are certain choices selected by the charitable organizations in dealing with inequity. These choices include changing inputs or shack off, change outcomes or increasing output and through changing self perceptions. Moreover, several profit organizations also consider certain choices in order to deal with inequity that includes changing the perception of others, selecting a different referent person and leaving the field or job. Considering such scenario, Mustafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomed (2015) revealed in consideration to previous literature that there are certain propositions related to inequitable pay. Over-rewarded hourly employees produce more than equitability rewarded employees and the over rewarded price work employees produces less but does a better quality piece work. It is also gathered that over-rewarded hourly employees to produce lower work quality. In addition, the under rewarded employees are deemed to produce increased quantities of inferior quality piece work in comparison to equitably rewarded employees. The profit organizations are also observed to offer tangible benefits such as mobile phone, laptop and cars along with providing competitive salaries and cash bonuses in order to increase motivation of its employees that can retain them for years. Previous researches of Miner (2015) revealed effectiveness of several employee motivation theories that can increase their motivation within the company and can remain them for years. One of these motivational theories that are explained by these researchers is Herzbergs Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory. In this theory the intrinsic factors are deemed to be associated with job satisfaction and the extrinsic factors are deemed to be related with dissatisfaction. In the charitable organizations, existence of certain hygiene factors are observed that includes factors like company policy and administration, supervision along with salary that is suitable for a job and related employees. Most of the charitable organizations have observed th at if they maintain thee factors effectively, most of them will not be satisfied. Previous research on two factor theory conducted by Lau and Roopnarain (2014) elaborated that there are hygiene factors and motivators that are responsible for job satisfaction within the profit organizations. Few of those hygiene factors that are maintained by the profit organizations to increase employee job satisfaction include supervision, company policy, and relationship with the supervisor and working conditions. Mostafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomley (2015) presented a research based on rewards personal goals relationship in which most of the charitable organizations considers the degree to which the rewards offered by companies satisfies goals or needs of employees. In this theory the intrinsic factors are deemed to be associated with job satisfaction and the extrinsic factors are deemed to be related with dissatisfaction. For such reasons, the NGOs as well as the profit organizations must consider recognizing individual differences and must individualize awards linking with performance in maintaining increased employee motivation. Conclusion The objective of this essay was to reveal the employee motivation factors within charitable and profit organizations. It is gathered from the essay that organizations must provide flexible working hours to its employees for increasing employee engagement. However, it is argued that Maslows hierarchy of needs may be inverted or un-sequential; esteem and self-actualization needs may be of same significance as lower needs physiological and safety needs. The Herzbergs two-factor theory states the two factors- satisfiers and dissatisfies that motivate employees (Shields et al. 2015). The satisfiers can be defined as the motivators associated with maintenance or hygiene such as responsibility, recognition, achievement and others. The dissatisfaction factors are the extrinsic motivators based on the work environment such as working conditions, peers, salary and others. An organization can be really frustrating if the administrative policies and procedures are unclear. It is argued that the NGOs are not provided with financial incentives that are seen in the case of organizations with financial motive. The factors like good salary and healthy working atmosphere is crucial for the employees (Van den Broeck et al. 2016). However, there is absence of possibility to make a difference and seeing the outcomes of the work in the profit making organizations. It may be argued that the two main factors as stated above are considered by the NGOs. The non-profit organizations do not have big budgets and their spending is scrutinized in a manner that the profit making organizations cannot imagine. The rewards are not always about the money. The non-profit making organizations can capitalize on formal mentorship programs, recognition programs and fostering a culture of trust and empowerment. Rewards encourage the employees to do the right things that would also help them grow professionally. According to the equity theory of motivation, the individual motivation level is correlated to his perception of equity, justice and fairness (Njoroge and Yazdanifard 2014). It also describes the way in which he is fairly treated. The inputs include all rich elements such as experience, loyalty, effort and commitment. The outcome can be defined as the rewards they receive from the jobs such as fringe benefit, job security and social rewards. The employees may be over-rewarded that might lead to an imbalance in the relationship. If the employees sense equity, they shall be motivated to continue working at the same job and level. Lastly, if the employees feel unrewarded, they may reduce their contribution in the organization. Gaps or areas of future research Previous literature on expectancy theory failed to focus on by Hauser (2014) gathered that an individual is likely to act in a particular manner relied on the expectation that some act will be followed by a particular outcome and on the attractiveness of such outcome to the individual. Considering the same, the future research will focus on analyzing the charitable organizations intend to maintain effort performance linkage, performance reward linkage as well as attractiveness of the work performed by employees in the company. It has been evidenced that in the profit organizations attempts to maintain effort performance relationship. There is a probability that exerting a desired amount of effort can result in improved employee performance. On the other hand, the profit organizations attempt to maintain performance reward relationship that has a belief that performing at a specific level can result in attainment of a desirable result. The objective of this essay was to reveal the employee motivation factors within charitable and profit organizations. It is gathered from the essay that organizations must provide flexible working hours to its employees for increasing employee engagement. Many organizations require their employees to work during peak hours. However, they may be flexible to provide ease to the employees. Apart from the regular schedule, innovation days must be set so that the employees take spaces from their work. They must be allowed to tackle projects on their own. Reimbursement for recreational activities such as yoga, gym memberships and others may be provided that would add to fringe benefits. They may be given holidays from their uniforms so that they feel relaxed from the formalities. An atmosphere must be created so that the employees have a work-life balance and they can leave early from work. The companies may run employee referral programs where the best employees may be hired through refer rals. Working at a charity provides the employees with flexible and varied roles. The role opportunities are incredibly diverse that offer unique pathways for the ones who are open to new possibilities. An unfortunate perception might be that charity work is less competitive for skills. Charities addressing public health or specific causes touching a wider mainstream consciousness place big emphasis on skilled expertise. The organizations value its employees relentlessly for pursuing the cause. References Bassous, M., 2015. What are the factors that affect worker motivation in faith-based nonprofit organizations?.VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations,26(1), pp.355-381. Chow, C.W., Lai, J.Y. and Loi, R., 2015. Motivation of travel agents' customer service behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: The role of leader-member exchange and internal marketing orientation. Tourism Management,48, pp.362-369. Feng, J., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Zhang, L. and Han, X., 2016. Just the right amount of ethics inspires creativity: A cross-level investigation of ethical leadership, intrinsic motivation, and employee creativity.Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-14. Gerhards, L., 2015. The incentive effects of missionsEvidence from experiments with NGO employees and students.European Economic Review,79, pp.252-262. Hauser, L., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior.Economics, Management and Financial Markets,9(4), p.239. Lau, C.M. and Roopnarain, K., 2014. The effects of nonfinancial and financial measures on employee motivation to participate in target setting.The British accounting review,46(3), pp.228-247. Miner, J.B., 2015.Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Mostafa, A.M.S., Gould?Williams, J.S. and Bottomley, P., 2015. High?performance human resource practices and employee outcomes: the mediating role of public service motivation.Public Administration Review,75(5), pp.747-757. Njoroge, C.N. and Yazdanifard, R., 2014. The impact of social and emotional intelligence on employee motivation in a multigenerational workplace.International Journal of Information, Business and Management,6(4), p.163. Pinder, C.C., 2014.Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., Johns, R., O'Leary, P., Robinson, J. and Plimmer, G., 2015.Managing Employee Performance Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press. Van den Broeck, A., Ferris, D.L., Chang, C.H. and Rosen, C.C., 2016. A review of self-determination theorys basic psychological needs at work.Journal of Management,42(5), pp.1195-1229.